Individual Voluntary Arrangement FAQ
FAQ’s – What is an Individual Voluntary Arrangement (IVA) ?
When an individual is insolvent i.e a person is unable to pay all their debts in full one option available to them is an Individual Voluntary Arrangement (“IVA”). Clearly there are too many variables to explore fully here, however, these FAQs address some of the more commonly asked questions.
What does Individual Voluntary Arrangement (IVA) mean?
Individual = one person (not partnership or company)
Voluntary = the individual approaches their creditors with a proposal as to when/how and how much will be returned to creditors.
Arrangement = creditors will not necessarily be paid in full but the amount agreed to be paid will be in full and final satisfaction of the debt. This means that creditors who are paid less than 100p/£1 are unable to look for the balance of the debt.
How do I get Started?
The very first starting point is to ensure that an IVA is the appropriate choice of procedure.
In the initial stages of an individual voluntary arrangement, a proposal to the creditors will be formulated. This proposal sets out how the debtor will repay some or all of what he or she owes or how the creditors can be satisfied. The proposal is sent to creditors together with a notice calling a meeting at which the creditors will either vote for the acceptance of the proposal or suggest changes. If 75% (by value) of the creditors vote for the proposal it will be legally binding on ALL unsecured creditors, whether or not they voted.
The terms might require the Supervisor to petition. If the terms of the agreement are kept, the debts will be cleared. If the terms of the agreement are not adhered to without creditors’ sanction the IVA fails and the Supervisor can apply for a Bankruptcy Order.
What does the proposal need to include?
The proposal would be prepared by turpin barker armstrong but it remains your proposal and would include:
- What the individual is going to offer to all creditors – this could be anything from a monthly payment to a one off payment from third party funds or sale of an asset but it has to be something the creditors will agree to!
- A brief history/reason for the individual finding themselves in that position.
- If continuing to trade what they will do differently in the future so the business in profitable.
- Household monthly income and expenditure.
- A list of all assets owned.
- A list of everyone who is owed money together with any security granted eg mortgage on a house.
- The proposal will also have to include a comparison between the proposed IVA versus a bankruptcy option.
What happens to the proposal?
The proposal, once completed, is sent to all creditors together with notice of the date of a creditors meeting, a proxy form to vote at the meeting if not attending. Creditors are given 14 clear days’ notice (18 days) of the creditors’ meeting when the proposal is considered by the creditors.
Do I Need to Attend the Creditors’ Meeting?
Yes as creditors can ask for modifications to your proposal and you need to negotiate/decide whether they are possible for you. Also, you need to be able to answer creditors’ questions. The meetings have to be held between 10 and 4pm on a normal working day (Monday- Friday except Bank Holidays).
What/Who is my Nominee?
A Nominee is someone who critically reviews the proposal before it goes to creditors and as the Nominee is a Court Officer there are rules as to what has to be covered both in the proposal and in the Nominee’s report. turpin barker armstrong act as Nominees for their respective clients. As they assist and guide you in writing the proposal to creditors it is unusual that their report would say anything other than supporting the proposal put forward by the person who owes the money.
Who / What is a Supervisor?
A Supervisor of the Individual Voluntary Arrangement (IVA) is a licenced insolvency practitioner who again is an officer of the Court. Creditors approve who the Supervisor will be but in most cases it will be the person who is the Nominee ie turpin barker armstrong.
The role of the Supervisor is to ensure all parties ie debtor and creditors do or don’t do whatever was agreed in the proposal accepted by creditors. Additionally, the Supervisor agrees the claims submitted by creditors for dividend purposes, collects the realisations from the debtor and distributes them out to the creditors.
The amount paid to a Supervisor is agreed by the creditors.
The Supervisor has to report, at least annually, to the creditors on the progress of the IVA and when it has been completed.
What will happen to my home?
If you own your own home and are declared bankrupt, your interest in your home will vest in your Trustee in Bankruptcy. Your Trustee will then seek to sell whatever equity is in the property and if necessary, can force a sale via the courts even if the house is jointly owned with another. This can also lead to a period of uncertainty as a Trustee has 3 years to realise the equity from a matrimonial home. In an IVA the debtor doesn’t control what happens to the matrimonial home although will know how it will be addressed through the terms of the IVA when the IVA is approved.
I am Self-employed. Can I continue trading?
Yes. However, you must be able to identify how your problems arose and what you will do to ensure the business is profitable. It is vital that the business is viable and can meet it’s liabilities as they fall due and that it is profitable. Bankruptcy does not legally prevent you from being self-employed, however, the inability to take credit will, in most cases, make running a business impossible. An IVA can enable you to continue taking credit for the purposes of running your business.
What will my employer do if I am declared bankrupt?
Many employers take a dim view of bankruptcy where a member of staff is in a position of responsibility. Whilst policies of employers do vary from employer to employer and also change over time, those working for the police, in public office or in the finance sector may be unable to continue working whilst an undischarged bankrupt. A solicitor or chartered accountant would have difficulty if bankrupt. An IVA does not have the same stigma.
Will I be able to continue acting as a director of my own company?
An undischarged bankrupt is unable to act as a director of a company without the prior leave of the court. There is nothing in law to prevent someone who is subject to an IVA from being a director.
I am a member of a professional body – will my membership be affected?
Members of professional bodies may be barred from membership or from acting in a professional capacity if they are declared bankrupt. The same can occur in a few professions if the member is subject to an IVA, however, this is rare. It is recommended that you review the terms of membership to determine the impact of insolvency or even phone your professional body on a “no names” basis. We have often made this phone call for individuals seeking to ensure their anonymity.
How will my credit rating be affected?
Credit rating is a problematic point. The credit rating is affected equally by both IVA and bankruptcy as both normally mean the creditors are not paid in full. While the implications of bankruptcy can/ do continue, it often is worse in an IVA as the credit report is amended only 6 years after the end of the insolvency procedure. Bankruptcy is 1 year plus 6 but an IVA is likely to be 5 years plus 6. This is a negative point for IVA’s.
Once an IVA is completed it will be recorded as “satisfied” on your credit rating. The main difference from this perspective is that some credit, mortgage and insurance applications ask “have you ever been declared bankrupt?” Therefore, the implications of bankruptcy on your credit rating can be felt long after you are discharged.
I would like my insolvency to remain private – who is told about it?
Bankruptcy carries a stigma that may people wish to avoid. A bankruptcy order is advertised in the London Gazette, a copy of this advert can be located following a quick internet search. An IVA is not advertised and remains a private agreement between you and your creditors. The only public records of an IVA are the copies which are filed at court and the registration on the website of the Insolvency Service. Therefore, an IVA is far less public and carries less stigma however, an IVA cannot prevent creditors sharing information if they are entitled to, banks certainly do this and is in the T&C’s of opening any account.
Will I be allowed to keep my car?
A bankrupt is permitted to retain a car of “reasonable value” for the purposes of getting to and from work. Whilst the term “reasonable value” is not defined in law, a car worth £1,500 or less would normally be considered acceptable for a bankrupt to retain. So long as the value of your car is disclosed in an IVA proposal, it is likely that a more valuable or reliable car can be retained. If your car is subject to a lease or finance agreement you should phone us to discuss the likely outcome.
How much intrusion will there be into my life if I am insolvent?
A bankrupt is required to provide information and may have to attend an interview with a public official called the Official Receiver, (“OR”). His job is to identify and investigate any potential frauds or other misdemeanors which might have occurred. Whilst you may know that no such events have taken place, the OR’s investigations to satisfy him that nothing improper has occurred might feel intrusive. A Trustee in Bankruptcy has the job of identifying and realising any assets you may have. Both of these officials have extensive powers including applying for your post to be redirected, you to be examined in court or writing to those with knowledge of your assets or affairs. An IVA is reliant on you making a full disclosure of your affairs in the initial proposal to your creditors and there is no statutory duty for an IVA Supervisor to investigate matters once an IVA had been approved.
How will insolvency affect my children?
In bankruptcy you no longer have control over your assets since they will vest in your Trustee who will determine which asset is sold for what price and when. This can feel particularly unsettling for families where a home might have to be sold and children may be settled at their local school. Assuming you adhere to the terms of your IVA, the proposal document allows you to determine precisely what the implications are on you, your family and your assets from the outset.
What fees do I have to pay?
If you apply for your own bankruptcy, you'll need to pay £680 to cover:
- an adjudicator fee of £130
- a deposit of £550 - you'll only get this back if your application is rejected
Supervisors fees are usually drawn from the IVA and not charged to the individual.
Our fees as your Nominee will vary depending on how complex your circumstances are. Our initial consultation is FREE. After this meeting we would advise on the appropriate alternatives available to you. If you require us to act as Nominee we will give you a fixed price, for any other of our services we normally charge on an hourly basis but our charges will be discussed and agreed with you on the outset on an individual basis.
We should be able to give you a rough guide following a telephone discussion and will give you a quote following a meeting.
What payments will I have to make from my future income?
In bankruptcy, you are interviewed by the Official Receiver, (“OR”), who will review your household income and expenditure. The purpose of this review is to establish your monthly surplus household income. You are then asked to sign an Income Payments Agreement, (“IPA”) to pay this surplus to the OR for the next 36 months. If you do not give this consent to the OR, he will typically go to court and obtain an Income Payments Order (“IPO”) which has the same effect and duration. An IVA has no statutory requirement for monthly payments regardless of your household budget. Depending on your circumstances and assets, it may be appropriate to offer a monthly payment to your creditors and we will advise you on this. Anyone who says that all IVAs require you to make payments from your income for 5 years is incorrect.
How long does it last?
Where a bankrupt complies fully and no misdemeanors’ are identified, the bankruptcy discharge is usually automatic after 12 months. It is less well publicised that the Trustee remains in office for as long as it takes for him to realise your assets which can be decades in some instances. During this time you have a continuing legal duty to comply with your Trustee. Whilst many of the larger providers of IVAs may suggest that all IVAs last for 5 years, there is nothing in law to prescribe an IVA’s duration. A good IVA will be tailored to your circumstances and can, in certain circumstances, be completed within a few months.
How much will my creditors recover?
You will have probably noticed that an IVA is generally less onerous than bankruptcy. To reflect this, your creditors will expect your IVA proposal to offer them a better recovery of the monies you owe them. The term “better” need not always mean “higher” since for some creditors a faster or more certain outcome is the key. Different types of creditors such as HMRC, financial institutions and trade creditors will have different expectations from an IVA proposal. We can guide you on quite what kind of proposal will appeal to your population of creditors to help ensure it is approved.
Will I be able to keep my bank account?
A bankruptcy application must list all bank accounts including those with nil balance and overdraft facility. For this reason we usually recommend people to open their new bank account immediately after being declared bankrupt. Most banks have a basic account to offer although an individual might have to ask around before succeeding.
What if I am still unsure?
This FAQ guide is not intended to be an exhaustive comparison of all of the factors and there will also be considerations within each factor which have not been explored or elaborated on. Nobody likes to be pigeon holed and we would expect most of those considering their options to fall into one or more grey areas. Before you make your final decision telephone 020 8661 7878 and ask for the Insolvency Department who will be able to advise you on your precise circumstances.
What if I am already Bankrupt?
If you have assets and or are able to make monthly contributions to the fund for your creditors we may be able to help you get an annulment of your bankruptcy and put an IVA in its place. Whilst it is not always possible to do this, we consider individual circumstances on their merits and advise you accordingly.
What happens if I am getting Divorced?
Difficulties do arise when there is an intervening divorce settlement. Arrears of maintenance although not future maintenance of matrimonial claims claims can be proven in a personal bankruptcy proceeding. Although the law is constantly evolving in this area, where there is a conflict between Insolvency and matrimonial law, the Insolvency law generally takes precedence but rarely overturns an existing matrimonial order.
What are the Benefits of an IVA?
- IVA costs and fees are often less than those of bankruptcy.
- An IVA is not advertised, whereas a bankruptcy is.
- Debtors are given a chance to rebuild their lives by retaining control of their assets.
- Debtors have the opportunity to stay in business and continue trading under an IVA, either as a sole trader or in a partnership or as a director of a limited company. The restrictions that apply to bankruptcy are avoided.
- In most instances debtors are allowed to keep their homes. Most important of all, once the agreement is made, interest ceases to accrue – this does not happen with a debt consolidation arrangement.
- Creditors may expect to get a greater payment out of an IVA than they would in the event of the debtor becoming bankrupt, as the debtor is being helpful and costs are reduced.
What are the benefits of a lengthy IVA if a bankruptcy only lasts one year?
Even though you are a bankrupt in most cases for a maximum of one year the effects of the bankruptcy order lasts longer. All assets owned at the date of bankruptcy remain the property of the Trustee even if they are unsold: also, the Court can make Income Payment Orders which last for 3 years despite you having obtained your discharge.
Other advantages include:
- the costs and fees are often less than those of bankruptcy
- you retain ownership of assets
- if you are trading you can continue to do so
- an IVA is not advertised, whereas a bankruptcy is
- you can act as a director and may be able to retain your professional qualification eg solicitor, accountant
- you can be employed as a policeman, fireman, etc
- there are no restrictions placed on your actions
Why can’t I simply write to creditors seeking an informal scheme?
Whilst this is possible, there are four main disadvantages from the debtor’s point of view:
- There is no legal timetable for the creditors to reply to your request.
- An IVA binds in creditors who do not chose to accept the proposal – provided the IVA is passed by the requisite majority of votes.
- The IVA process provides a formal legal framework for the creditors to accept a lesser sum than you owe in full and final settlement.
- Interest charges continue to accrue.
- legal action can be taken against you.
What if legal action has already been or is about to be taken against me?
We can help you apply for an Interim Order which prevents any creditor taking any action against you whilst you put your proposal to your creditors. This action can even prevent possession proceedings of your house. Once the proposal is accepted all unsecured creditors are prevented from taking action against you.
When should I seek Advice?
You should seek advice at the earliest opportunity from a Licensed Insolvency Practitioner. This should be when you think you may be unable to pay your debts as they fall due. The sooner you seek advice the more the available options.